Filosofía del Derecho
Filosofía del Derecho
1 marzo 2013
Sección: Libros

Virgilio Ruiz Rodríguez

Instituto Electoral del Estado de México-Universidad Iberoamericana, México, 2012

Pese a ser catalogada como un saber no científico, la filosofía ha abordado, a lo largo de más de 25 siglos, prácticamente todos los aspectos relacionados con el ser humano, a los que temas como el Derecho y la justicia no han escapado. Echando mano del amplio arsenal teórico que la filosofía puede ofrecer, Virgilio Ruiz analiza en este libro los problemas más importantes de la filosofía del Derecho, como el poder y el Derecho, la justicia, los debates sobre los conceptos del Derecho y las relaciones entre éste y la moral.

En el primer capítulo, el autor explica qué comprende y rodea a ese saber llamado filosofía y su relación con otras ciencias, así como lo que resulta propio del Derecho y sus fines, para desembocar en la función de la filosofía del Derecho en relación con la ciencia jurídica.

En el segundo capítulo aborda los principales temas que debe estudiar la filosofía del Derecho: la teoría del Derecho u ontología jurídica (la descripción de lo que es el Derecho en la vida social humana, en estrecha relación con diversos ámbitos como la política y la ética); la teoría de la ciencia jurídica o lógica jurídica (la epistemología de lo jurídico, así como el arte de pensar y argumentar que debe ser ejercitado por el jurista o profesional del Derecho), y la teoría de la justicia o axiología jurídica (los valores que fundamentan el Derecho, entre ellos, de manera primordial, la justicia).

El tercer capítulo se ocupa de uno de los temas fundamentales del libro: la relación entre el Derecho y la moral. Aquí se aborda un asunto de permanente polémica y discusión: el enfrentamiento entre iusnaturalistas y iuspositivistas en torno a la aceptación o el rechazo de que la ley natural sea considerada como verdadera ley y, en consecuencia, de que el Derecho natural también sea visto como Derecho, o de que solamente el Derecho positivo merezca esa nominación.

Finalmente, en el cuarto capítulo, el autor define la misión y la importancia de la filosofía del Derecho, señalando que la vida social, en la que es indispensable un ordenamiento jurídico, sólo alcanza sus fines mediante una reflexión filosófica sobre tal ordenamiento con el fin de mejorarlo y optimizar la vida social, así como sus instituciones, para hacer más pacíficas las relaciones entre los hombres.

Se trata, en conclusión, de una obra en la que el autor invita a los profesionales del Derecho a no conformarse con la solución legal, sino a afanarse siempre por lograr que ésta también sea justa.

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